Cofactors of snoring

Snoring is common in adults and usually is not a sign of an underlying disorder. But it indicates an increase of the resistance of the upper airway and may be a sign of obstructive sleep apnea. Snoring may also be associated with morphological conditions that narrow the upper airway, such as obesity, nasal congestion, craniofacial abnormalities, hypothyroidism, acromegaly, and adenotonsillar hypertrophy.

The pathogenic mechanisms of snoring are complex. It is a respiratory noise acoustically, is due to the vibration of the wall of the oropharynx, where the permeability of the upper airway is altered by some of the many factors that regulate. These factors predisposing to pharyngeal light reduction are at the root of snoring by the pharyngeal collapsibility oropharynx level.

Importance of nasal breathing

Mouth breathing is a common condition that predisposes to snoring. During normal nasal breathing, resistance is generally low in one nostril and higher in other, allowing a balance of the respiratory cycle.When bilateral nasal obstruction is the increased resistance causes an arousal that restores the flow through the mourth breathing resistance increases by the reduction in pharyngeal caliber caused by rearward suprahyoid  structures.

Snoring may also be related to a deviated nasa septum, an enlarged turbinates of the nose, tonsils or palate, chronic laryngitis, tenderness in the muscles of the mourth or throat or nasal obstruction passing. Any of these factors predispose to pharyngeal light reduction, decreasing the advent of air conditioning lungs sound vibration that causes snoring.

Obesity

Is the most important factor in sleep disordered breathing. Overweight directly affects the size of the VAS, possibly by the accumulation of fat peripharyngeal decreasing section of the airway and the metabolic and endocrine morbidity associated with obese patients.

Postural factors

The supine position increases the likelihood of snoring by the displacement of the jaw structures 13 point further behind.

The intake of alcohol and sedatives

Promote snoring and OSA, its depressant action on the respiratory center.

The snuff

acts by increasing the intensity of snoring to be due to inflammation and edema, and secondarily, causes pharyngeal narrowing.

Sex

There is a greater prevalence of snoring in men than women. The reason for this difference is not yet known, but shuffled the possible influence of sex hormones and anthropometric factors, although at present there is no conclusive study. What if it is proven is that the progesterone hormone (typically female), provide ventilation and snoring improved with pharmacological administration of progesterone. The female is hormonally protected from snoring, but that may change with the arrival of a pregnancy due to increased segregation of a hormone, progesterone, which results in an increase in nasal congestion. Similarly, in post-menopausal women (when progesterone levels down), they are justified increased snoring because it is proven that in the group of postmenopausal women, the prevalence of snoring increases.

Age

The increased prevalence of snoring with age has been demonstrated in all epidemiological studies. About 20% of adults in middle age of life are snorers, this percentage varies in response to population studies by age subgroups, 10% men and 5% women aged 30 years and 60% male and 40% female from 60. The age factor is instrumental in the development of snoring.

 

In children, the prevalence is quite high, but lower than in adults, but with a most alarming condition, and that snoring can cause behavioral problems and cognitive failures.

According to a report of the Central Hospital of the University of Helsinki, published in the Journal of Depelopmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, children who snore are more likely to have other sleep problems such as nightmares, somniloquy, or difficulty going to the bed and have more symptoms of depression and anxiety as well as language and attention problems than their peers without snoring.

From: Garcia Urbano, J. : Orthoapnea. Snoring and Obstructive Apnea: Solutions to sleeping problems. Ripano, 2011.

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